Arrow function (Lambda expression) in Brief

What is Arrow function?

Arrow function expression defines the succinct syntax for writing the function expressions in JavaScript, which has been introduced in the ES6. It will not bind its own this, while using it within the functions and it has in-built return type attribute.

Syntax:

(parameters) => {stuffs}

Example:

Following is the simple demonstration about the usage of Arrow functions to make the code more compact.

var marks = [68, 83, 72, 56, 88];
var sum1 = marks.reduce(function (total, mark){
    return total + mark;
});
console.log(sum1);// Output: 367

var sum2 = marks.reduce((total, mark) => {
    return total + mark;
});
console.log(sum2);// Output: 367

var sum3 = marks.reduce((total, mark) => total + mark);
console.log(sum3);// Output: 367

Fiddle Demo

Advantage of Arrow function:

Example with JavaScript object constructor

In the following example the student () constructor has setTimeout () method for updating the “totalMark” attribute of “student ()”. Here the “this” defined by setTimeout () method is refers to the Window object. Hence it will not match with the “this” defined by the student () constructor. So the “totalMark” attribute of student () constructor cannot be changed in setTimeout () method as expected and it results in TypeError.

var s = new student();
function student() {
    this.student1 = { "name": "Smith", "totalMark": 375 };
    //To change the "Total Mark"
    setTimeout(function () {
        var newTotal = 395;
        if (this.student1.name == "Smith")//Uncaught TypeError: Cannot read property 'name' of undefined
            this.student1.totalMark = newTotal;
    }, 500);
}

To overcome this issue in ES6, Arrow function expression can be used with that setTimeout () method as stated in the following code snippets.

var s = new student();
function student() {
    this.student1 = {"name":"Smith", "totalMark":375};
    //To change the "Total Mark"
    setTimeout(() => {
        var newTotal = 395;
        if (this.student1.name == "Smith")
            this.student1.totalMark = newTotal;
        console.log(this.student1);//{name:"Smith",totalMark:395}
    }, 500);
}

 

Disadvantage of Arrow function:

In the following example, while using the Arrow function inside the marks () function prototype for total () method, it will change the context of “this” to Window object. Hence it leads to unexpected output or error.

var marks = function() {
    this.mark1 = 80;
    this.mark2 = 60;
};

marks.prototype = {
    total: () => this.mark1 + this.mark2 //Here "this" refers to Window object. It does not represents the "this" of marks()
}
var m = new marks();
console.log(m.total()); //NaN

So in this case, writing the function expression in normal way is preferable as like as following code snippets. Here in total () method, “this” will be referred to marks () object constructor and it works as usual without exception.

var marks = function () {
    this.mark1 = 80;
    this.mark2 = 60;
};

marks.prototype = {
    total: function () {
        return this.mark1 + this.mark2;
    }
}
var m = new marks();
console.log(m.total()); // 140;

 

Note:

For Arrow function line break is not acceptable as shown below. It will throw Syntax error.

var sum = ()
=> {return true}; //As arrow symbol at starting position

 

Replace () as call back function

We know that the replace() method will return a new string based on the pattern and its corresponding replacement argument.

Here the pattern can be either general string or regular expression that we normally use. And for replacement argument in most cases we use string as replacement. But there is an extensible facility to use this replacement as call back function.

Here we go with a small example code snippets.

Code Snippets:


var numbers = '34 55 27 45 72',
type1 = numbers.replace(/\d+/g, '*'),
type2 = numbers.replace(/\d+/g, function (item) {
return +item < 50 ? '*' : item;
});
console.log("simple replace() : ", type1);
console.log("replace() with call back function : ", type2);

Fiddle Demo

Note:

The call back function will be invoked for the each matched set of an item, when the first parameter regular expression is declared as global.